The application event loop¶
In order to let pyglet process operating system events such as mouse and keyboard events, applications need to enter an application event loop. The event loop continuously checks for new events, dispatches those events, and updates the contents of all open windows.
pyglet provides an application event loop that is tuned for performance and low power usage on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. Most applications need only call:
to enter the event loop after creating their initial set of windows and
attaching event handlers. The
run() function does not
return until all open windows have been closed, or until
pyglet.app.exit() is called.
The pyglet application event loop dispatches window events (such as for mouse
and keyboard input) as they occur and dispatches the
on_draw() event to
each window after every iteration through the loop.
To have additional code run periodically or every iteration through the loop, schedule functions on the clock (see Calling functions periodically). pyglet ensures that the loop iterates only as often as necessary to fulfill all scheduled functions and user input.
Customising the event loop¶
The pyglet event loop is encapsulated in the
EventLoop class, which provides
several hooks that can be overridden for customising its behaviour. This is
recommended only for advanced users – typical applications and games are
unlikely to require this functionality.
To use the
EventLoop class directly, instantiate it and call run:
event_loop = pyglet.app.EventLoop() event_loop.run()
EventLoop can be running at a time; when the
run() method is called
the module variable
pyglet.app.event_loop is set to the running
instance. Other pyglet modules such as
pyglet.window depend on this.
Event loop events¶
You can listen for several events on the event loop instance. The most useful
of these is
on_window_close(), which is
dispatched whenever a window is closed. The default handler for this event
exits the event loop if there are no more windows. The following example
overrides this behaviour to exit the application whenever any window is
event_loop = pyglet.app.EventLoop() @event_loop.event def on_window_close(window): event_loop.exit() return pyglet.event.EVENT_HANDLED event_loop.run()
Overriding the default idle policy¶
pyglet.app.EventLoop.idle() method is called every iteration of
the event loop. It is responsible for calling scheduled clock functions,
redrawing windows, and deciding how idle the application is. You can override
this method if you have specific requirements for tuning the performance
of your application; especially if it uses many windows.
The default implementation has the following algorithm:
poll=Trueto call any scheduled functions.
- Dispatch the
on_draw()event and call
flip()on every open window.
- Return the value of
The return value of the
get_sleep_time() method is
the number of seconds until the event loop needs to iterate again (unless
there is an earlier user-input event); or
None if the loop can wait
for input indefinitely.
Note that this default policy causes every window to be redrawn during every user event – if you have more knowledge about which events have an effect on which windows you can improve on the performance of this method.
Dispatching events manually¶
Earlier versions of pyglet and certain other windowing toolkits such as
PyGame and SDL require the application developer to write their own event
loop. This is usually just an inconvenience compared to
pyglet.app.run(), but can be necessary in some situations when
combining pyglet with other toolkits.
A simple event loop usually has the following form:
while True: pyglet.clock.tick() for window in pyglet.app.windows: window.switch_to() window.dispatch_events() window.dispatch_event('on_draw') window.flip()
dispatch_events() method checks the window’s
operating system event queue for user input and dispatches any events found.
The method does not wait for input – if ther are no events pending, control is
returned to the program immediately.
The call to
pyglet.clock.tick() is required for ensuring scheduled
functions are called, including the internal data pump functions for playing
sounds, animations, and video.
While it is possible to write your own event loop in this way, it is strongly discouraged for the following reasons:
EventLoopclass provides plenty of hooks for most toolkits to be integrated without needing to resort to a manual event loop.
EventLoopis tuned for specific operating systems, it is more responsive to user events, and continues calling clock functions while windows are being resized, and (on Mac OS X) the menu bar is being tracked.
- It is difficult to write a manual event loop that does not consume 100% CPU while still remaining responsive to user input.
The capability for writing manual event loops remains for legacy support and extreme cases where the developer knows what they are doing.