pyglet.image

Submodules

Details

Image load, capture and high-level texture functions.

Only basic functionality is described here; for full reference see the accompanying documentation.

To load an image:

from pyglet import image
pic = image.load('picture.png')

The supported image file types include PNG, BMP, GIF, JPG, and many more, somewhat depending on the operating system. To load an image from a file-like object instead of a filename:

pic = image.load('hint.jpg', file=fileobj)

The hint helps the module locate an appropriate decoder to use based on the file extension. It is optional.

Once loaded, images can be used directly by most other modules of pyglet. All images have a width and height you can access:

width, height = pic.width, pic.height

You can extract a region of an image (this keeps the original image intact; the memory is shared efficiently):

subimage = pic.get_region(x, y, width, height)

Remember that y-coordinates are always increasing upwards.

Drawing images

To draw an image at some point on the screen:

pic.blit(x, y, z)

This assumes an appropriate view transform and projection have been applied.

Some images have an intrinsic “anchor point”: this is the point which will be aligned to the x and y coordinates when the image is drawn. By default the anchor point is the lower-left corner of the image. You can use the anchor point to center an image at a given point, for example:

pic.anchor_x = pic.width // 2
pic.anchor_y = pic.height // 2
pic.blit(x, y, z)

Texture access

If you are using OpenGL directly, you can access the image as a texture:

texture = pic.get_texture()

(This is the most efficient way to obtain a texture; some images are immediately loaded as textures, whereas others go through an intermediate form). To use a texture with pyglet.gl:

from pyglet.gl import *
glEnable(texture.target)        # typically target is GL_TEXTURE_2D
glBindTexture(texture.target, texture.id)
# ... draw with the texture

Pixel access

To access raw pixel data of an image:

rawimage = pic.get_image_data()

(If the image has just been loaded this will be a very quick operation; however if the image is a texture a relatively expensive readback operation will occur). The pixels can be accessed as a string:

format = 'RGBA'
pitch = rawimage.width * len(format)
pixels = rawimage.get_data(format, pitch)

“format” strings consist of characters that give the byte order of each color component. For example, if rawimage.format is ‘RGBA’, there are four color components: red, green, blue and alpha, in that order. Other common format strings are ‘RGB’, ‘LA’ (luminance, alpha) and ‘I’ (intensity).

The “pitch” of an image is the number of bytes in a row (this may validly be more than the number required to make up the width of the image, it is common to see this for word alignment). If “pitch” is negative the rows of the image are ordered from top to bottom, otherwise they are ordered from bottom to top.

Retrieving data with the format and pitch given in ImageData.format and ImageData.pitch avoids the need for data conversion (assuming you can make use of the data in this arbitrary format).

Classes

Images

class AbstractImage(width, height)

Abstract class representing an image.

Variables:
  • width (int) – Width of image
  • height (int) – Height of image
  • anchor_x (int) – X coordinate of anchor, relative to left edge of image data
  • anchor_y (int) – Y coordinate of anchor, relative to bottom edge of image data
blit(x, y, z=0)

Draw this image to the active framebuffers.

The image will be drawn with the lower-left corner at (x - anchor_x, y - anchor_y, z).

blit_into(source, x, y, z)

Draw source on this image.

source will be copied into this image such that its anchor point is aligned with the x and y parameters. If this image is a 3D texture, the z coordinate gives the image slice to copy into.

Note that if source is larger than this image (or the positioning would cause the copy to go out of bounds) then you must pass a region of source to this method, typically using get_region().

blit_to_texture(target, level, x, y, z=0)

Draw this image on the currently bound texture at target.

This image is copied into the texture such that this image’s anchor point is aligned with the given x and y coordinates of the destination texture. If the currently bound texture is a 3D texture, the z coordinate gives the image slice to blit into.

get_image_data()

Get an ImageData view of this image.

Changes to the returned instance may or may not be reflected in this image.

Return type:ImageData

New in version 1.1.

get_mipmapped_texture()

Retrieve a Texture instance with all mipmap levels filled in.

Requires that image dimensions be powers of 2.

Return type:Texture

New in version 1.1.

get_region(x, y, width, height)

Retrieve a rectangular region of this image.

Parameters:
  • x (int) – Left edge of region.
  • y (int) – Bottom edge of region.
  • width (int) – Width of region.
  • height (int) – Height of region.
Return type:

AbstractImage

get_texture(rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)

A Texture view of this image.

By default, textures are created with dimensions that are powers of two. Smaller images will return a TextureRegion that covers just the image portion of the larger texture. This restriction is required on older video cards, and for compressed textures, or where texture repeat modes will be used, or where mipmapping is desired.

If the rectangle parameter is True, this restriction is ignored and a texture the size of the image may be created if the driver supports the GL_ARB_texture_rectangle or GL_NV_texture_rectangle extensions. If the extensions are not present, the image already is a texture, or the image has power 2 dimensions, the rectangle parameter is ignored.

Examine Texture.target to determine if the returned texture is a rectangle (GL_TEXTURE_RECTANGLE_ARB or GL_TEXTURE_RECTANGLE_NV) or not (GL_TEXTURE_2D).

If the force_rectangle parameter is True, one of these extensions must be present, and the returned texture always has target GL_TEXTURE_RECTANGLE_ARB or GL_TEXTURE_RECTANGLE_NV.

Changes to the returned instance may or may not be reflected in this image.

Parameters:
  • rectangle (bool) – True if the texture can be created as a rectangle.
  • force_rectangle (bool) – True if the texture must be created as a rectangle. .. versionadded:: 1.1.4.
Return type:

Texture

New in version 1.1.

save(filename=None, file=None, encoder=None)

Save this image to a file.

Parameters:
  • filename (str) – Used to set the image file format, and to open the output file if file is unspecified.
  • file (file-like object or None) – File to write image data to.
  • encoder (ImageEncoder or None) – If unspecified, all encoders matching the filename extension are tried. If all fail, the exception from the first one attempted is raised.
anchor_x = 0
anchor_y = 0
image_data

An ImageData view of this image.

Changes to the returned instance may or may not be reflected in this image. Read-only.

Warning

Deprecated. Use get_image_data().

Type:ImageData
mipmapped_texture

A Texture view of this image.

The returned Texture will have mipmaps filled in for all levels. Requires that image dimensions be powers of 2. Read-only.

Warning

Deprecated. Use get_mipmapped_texture.

Type:Texture
texture

Get a Texture view of this image.

Changes to the returned instance may or may not be reflected in this image.

Warning

Deprecated. Use get_texture().

Type:Texture
class BufferImage(x, y, width, height)

Bases: pyglet.image.AbstractImage

An abstract framebuffer.

get_image_data()
get_region(x, y, width, height)
format = ''

The format string used for image data.

gl_buffer = 1029

The OpenGL read and write target for this buffer.

gl_format = 0

The OpenGL format constant for image data.

owner = None
class BufferImageMask(x, y, width, height)

Bases: pyglet.image.BufferImage

A single bit of the stencil buffer.

format = 'L'
gl_format = 6401
class ColorBufferImage(x, y, width, height)

Bases: pyglet.image.BufferImage

A color framebuffer.

This class is used to wrap both the primary color buffer (i.e., the back buffer) or any one of the auxiliary buffers.

blit_to_texture(target, level, x, y, z)
get_texture(rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)
format = 'RGBA'
gl_format = 6408
class DepthBufferImage(x, y, width, height)

Bases: pyglet.image.BufferImage

The depth buffer.

blit_to_texture(target, level, x, y, z)
get_texture(rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)
format = 'L'
gl_format = 6402
class Texture(width, height, target, id)

Bases: pyglet.image.AbstractImage

An image loaded into video memory that can be efficiently drawn to the framebuffer.

Typically you will get an instance of Texture by accessing the texture member of any other AbstractImage.

Variables:
  • region_class (class (subclass of TextureRegion)) – Class to use when constructing regions of this texture.
  • tex_coords (tuple) – 12-tuple of float, named (u1, v1, r1, u2, v2, r2, ...). u, v, r give the 3D texture coordinates for vertices 1-4. The vertices are specified in the order bottom-left, bottom-right, top-right and top-left.
  • target (int) – The GL texture target (e.g., GL_TEXTURE_2D).
  • level (int) – The mipmap level of this texture.
region_class

alias of TextureRegion

blit(x, y, z=0, width=None, height=None)
blit_into(source, x, y, z)
classmethod create(width, height, internalformat=6408, rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False, min_filter=9729, mag_filter=9729)

Create an empty Texture.

If rectangle is False or the appropriate driver extensions are not available, a larger texture than requested will be created, and a TextureRegion corresponding to the requested size will be returned.

Parameters:
  • width (int) – Width of the texture.
  • height (int) – Height of the texture.
  • internalformat (int) – GL constant giving the internal format of the texture; for example, GL_RGBA.
  • rectangle (bool) – True if a rectangular texture is permitted. See AbstractImage.get_texture.
  • force_rectangle (bool) – True if a rectangular texture is required. See AbstractImage.get_texture. .. versionadded:: 1.1.4.
  • min_filter (int) – The minifaction filter used for this texture, commonly GL_LINEAR or GL_NEAREST
  • mag_filter (int) – The magnification filter used for this texture, commonly GL_LINEAR or GL_NEAREST
Return type:

Texture

New in version 1.1.

classmethod create_for_size(target, min_width, min_height, internalformat=None, min_filter=9729, mag_filter=9729)

Create a Texture with dimensions at least min_width, min_height. On return, the texture will be bound.

Parameters:
  • target (int) – GL constant giving texture target to use, typically GL_TEXTURE_2D.
  • min_width (int) – Minimum width of texture (may be increased to create a power of 2).
  • min_height (int) – Minimum height of texture (may be increased to create a power of 2).
  • internalformat (int) – GL constant giving internal format of texture; for example, GL_RGBA. If unspecified, the texture will not be initialised (only the texture name will be created on the instance). If specified, the image will be initialised to this format with zero’d data.
  • min_filter (int) – The minifaction filter used for this texture, commonly GL_LINEAR or GL_NEAREST
  • mag_filter (int) – The magnification filter used for this texture, commonly GL_LINEAR or GL_NEAREST
Return type:

Texture

delete()

Delete the texture from video memory.

Warning

Deprecated. Textures are automatically released during object finalization.

get_image_data(z=0)

Get the image data of this texture.

Changes to the returned instance will not be reflected in this texture.

Parameters:z (int) – For 3D textures, the image slice to retrieve.
Return type:ImageData
get_region(x, y, width, height)
get_texture(rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)
get_transform(flip_x=False, flip_y=False, rotate=0)

Create a copy of this image applying a simple transformation.

The transformation is applied to the texture coordinates only; get_image_data() will return the untransformed data. The transformation is applied around the anchor point.

Parameters:
  • flip_x (bool) – If True, the returned image will be flipped horizontally.
  • flip_y (bool) – If True, the returned image will be flipped vertically.
  • rotate (int) – Degrees of clockwise rotation of the returned image. Only 90-degree increments are supported.
Return type:

TextureRegion

image_data

An ImageData view of this texture.

Changes to the returned instance will not be reflected in this texture. If the texture is a 3D texture, the first image will be returned. See also get_image_data(). Read-only.

Warning

Deprecated. Use get_image_data().

Type:ImageData
images = 1
level = 0
tex_coords = (0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0)
tex_coords_order = (0, 1, 2, 3)
x = 0
y = 0
z = 0
class DepthTexture(width, height, target, id)

Bases: pyglet.image.Texture

A texture with depth samples (typically 24-bit).

blit_into(source, x, y, z)
class TextureRegion(x, y, z, width, height, owner)

Bases: pyglet.image.Texture

A rectangular region of a texture, presented as if it were a separate texture.

blit_into(source, x, y, z)
get_image_data()
get_region(x, y, width, height)
class TileableTexture(width, height, target, id)

Bases: pyglet.image.Texture

A texture that can be tiled efficiently.

Use create_for_Image classmethod to construct.

blit_tiled(x, y, z, width, height)

Blit this texture tiled over the given area.

The image will be tiled with the bottom-left corner of the destination rectangle aligned with the anchor point of this texture.

classmethod create_for_image(image)
get_region(x, y, width, height)

Animations

class Animation(frames)

Sequence of images with timing information.

If no frames of the animation have a duration of None, the animation loops continuously; otherwise the animation stops at the first frame with duration of None.

Variables:frames (list of ~pyglet.image.AnimationFrame) – The frames that make up the animation.
add_to_texture_bin(bin)

Add the images of the animation to a TextureBin.

The animation frames are modified in-place to refer to the texture bin regions.

Parameters:bin (TextureBin) – Texture bin to upload animation frames into.
classmethod from_image_sequence(sequence, period, loop=True)

Create an animation from a list of images and a constant framerate.

Parameters:
  • sequence (list of ~pyglet.image.AbstractImage) – Images that make up the animation, in sequence.
  • period (float) – Number of seconds to display each image.
  • loop (bool) – If True, the animation will loop continuously.
Return type:

Animation

get_duration()

Get the total duration of the animation in seconds.

Return type:float
get_max_height()

Get the maximum image frame height.

This method is useful for determining texture space requirements: due to the use of anchor_y the actual required playback area may be larger.

Return type:int
get_max_width()

Get the maximum image frame width.

This method is useful for determining texture space requirements: due to the use of anchor_x the actual required playback area may be larger.

Return type:int
get_transform(flip_x=False, flip_y=False, rotate=0)

Create a copy of this animation applying a simple transformation.

The transformation is applied around the image’s anchor point of each frame. The texture data is shared between the original animation and the transformed animation.

Parameters:
  • flip_x (bool) – If True, the returned animation will be flipped horizontally.
  • flip_y (bool) – If True, the returned animation will be flipped vertically.
  • rotate (int) – Degrees of clockwise rotation of the returned animation. Only 90-degree increments are supported.
Return type:

Animation

class AnimationFrame(image, duration)

A single frame of an animation.

Image Sequences

class AbstractImageSequence

Abstract sequence of images.

The sequence is useful for storing image animations or slices of a volume. For efficient access, use the texture_sequence member. The class also implements the sequence interface (__len__, __getitem__, __setitem__).

get_animation(period, loop=True)

Create an animation over this image sequence for the given constant framerate.

:Parameters
period : float
Number of seconds to display each frame.
loop : bool
If True, the animation will loop continuously.
Return type:Animation

New in version 1.1.

get_texture_sequence()

Get a TextureSequence.

Return type:TextureSequence

New in version 1.1.

texture_sequence

Access this image sequence as a texture sequence.

Warning

Deprecated. Use get_texture_sequence

Type:TextureSequence
class TextureSequence

Bases: pyglet.image.AbstractImageSequence

Interface for a sequence of textures.

Typical implementations store multiple TextureRegion s within one Texture so as to minimise state changes.

get_texture_sequence()
class UniformTextureSequence

Bases: pyglet.image.TextureSequence

Interface for a sequence of textures, each with the same dimensions.

Variables:
  • item_width (int) – Width of each texture in the sequence.
  • item_height (int) – Height of each texture in the sequence.
item_height
item_width
class TextureGrid(grid)

Bases: pyglet.image.TextureRegion, pyglet.image.UniformTextureSequence

A texture containing a regular grid of texture regions.

To construct, create an ImageGrid first:

image_grid = ImageGrid(...)
texture_grid = TextureGrid(image_grid)

The texture grid can be accessed as a single texture, or as a sequence of TextureRegion. When accessing as a sequence, you can specify integer indexes, in which the images are arranged in rows from the bottom-left to the top-right:

# assume the texture_grid is 3x3:
current_texture = texture_grid[3] # get the middle-left image

You can also specify tuples in the sequence methods, which are addressed as row, column:

# equivalent to the previous example:
current_texture = texture_grid[1, 0]

When using tuples in a slice, the returned sequence is over the rectangular region defined by the slice:

# returns center, center-right, center-top, top-right images in that
# order:
images = texture_grid[(1,1):]
# equivalent to
images = texture_grid[(1,1):(3,3)]
get(row, column)
columns = 1
item_height = 0
item_width = 0
items = ()
rows = 1
class Texture3D(width, height, target, id)

Bases: pyglet.image.Texture, pyglet.image.UniformTextureSequence

A texture with more than one image slice.

Use create_for_images or create_for_image_grid classmethod to construct.

classmethod create_for_image_grid(grid, internalformat=6408)
classmethod create_for_images(images, internalformat=6408)
item_height = 0
item_width = 0
items = ()

Patterns

class ImagePattern

Abstract image creation class.

create_image(width, height)

Create an image of the given size.

Parameters:
  • width (int) – Width of image to create
  • height (int) – Height of image to create
Return type:

AbstractImage

class CheckerImagePattern(color1=(150, 150, 150, 255), color2=(200, 200, 200, 255))

Bases: pyglet.image.ImagePattern

Create an image with a tileable checker image.

create_image(width, height)
class SolidColorImagePattern(color=(0, 0, 0, 0))

Bases: pyglet.image.ImagePattern

Creates an image filled with a solid color.

create_image(width, height)

Data

class ImageData(width, height, format, data, pitch=None)

Bases: pyglet.image.AbstractImage

An image represented as a string of unsigned bytes.

Variables:
  • data (str) – Pixel data, encoded according to format and pitch.
  • format (str) – The format string to use when reading or writing data.
  • pitch (int) – Number of bytes per row. Negative values indicate a top-to-bottom arrangement.

Setting the format and pitch instance variables and reading data is deprecated; use get_data and set_data in new applications. (Reading format and pitch to obtain the current encoding is not deprecated).

blit(x, y, z=0, width=None, height=None)
blit_to_texture(target, level, x, y, z, internalformat=None)

Draw this image to to the currently bound texture at target.

This image’s anchor point will be aligned to the given x and y coordinates. If the currently bound texture is a 3D texture, the z parameter gives the image slice to blit into.

If internalformat is specified, glTexImage is used to initialise the texture; otherwise, glTexSubImage is used to update a region.

create_texture(cls, rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)

Create a texture containing this image.

If the image’s dimensions are not powers of 2, a TextureRegion of a larger Texture will be returned that matches the dimensions of this image.

Parameters:
  • cls (class (subclass of Texture)) – Class to construct.
  • rectangle (bool) – True if a rectangle can be created; see AbstractImage.get_texture. .. versionadded:: 1.1
  • force_rectangle (bool) – True if a rectangle must be created; see AbstractImage.get_texture. .. versionadded:: 1.1.4
Return type:

cls or cls.region_class

get_data(format, pitch)

Get the byte data of the image.

Parameters:
  • format (str) – Format string of the return data.
  • pitch (int) – Number of bytes per row. Negative values indicate a top-to-bottom arrangement.

New in version 1.1.

Return type:sequence of bytes, or str
get_image_data()
get_mipmapped_texture()

Return a Texture with mipmaps.

If set_mipmap_Image has been called with at least one image, the set of images defined will be used. Otherwise, mipmaps will be automatically generated.

The texture dimensions must be powers of 2 to use mipmaps.

Return type:Texture

New in version 1.1.

get_region(x, y, width, height)

Retrieve a rectangular region of this image data.

Parameters:
  • x (int) – Left edge of region.
  • y (int) – Bottom edge of region.
  • width (int) – Width of region.
  • height (int) – Height of region.
Return type:

ImageDataRegion

get_texture(rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)
set_data(format, pitch, data)

Set the byte data of the image.

Parameters:
  • format (str) – Format string of the return data.
  • pitch (int) – Number of bytes per row. Negative values indicate a top-to-bottom arrangement.
  • data (str or sequence of bytes) – Image data.

New in version 1.1.

set_mipmap_image(level, image)

Set a mipmap image for a particular level.

The mipmap image will be applied to textures obtained via get_mipmapped_texture.

Parameters:
  • level (int) – Mipmap level to set image at, must be >= 1.
  • image (AbstractImage) – Image to set. Must have correct dimensions for that mipmap level (i.e., width >> level, height >> level)
data

The byte data of the image. Read-write.

Warning

Deprecated. Use get_data and set_data.

Type:sequence of bytes, or str
format

Format string of the data. Read-write.

Type:str
class CompressedImageData(width, height, gl_format, data, extension=None, decoder=None)

Bases: pyglet.image.AbstractImage

Image representing some compressed data suitable for direct uploading to driver.

blit_to_texture(target, level, x, y, z)
get_mipmapped_texture()
get_texture(rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)
set_mipmap_data(level, data)

Set data for a mipmap level.

Supplied data gives a compressed image for the given mipmap level. The image must be of the correct dimensions for the level (i.e., width >> level, height >> level); but this is not checked. If any mipmap levels are specified, they are used; otherwise, mipmaps for mipmapped_texture are generated automatically.

Parameters:
  • level (int) – Level of mipmap image to set.
  • data (sequence) – String or array/list of bytes giving compressed image data. Data must be in same format as specified in constructor.
class ImageDataRegion(x, y, width, height, image_data)

Bases: pyglet.image.ImageData

get_data(format, pitch)
get_region(x, y, width, height)
data

Other Classes

class BufferManager

Manages the set of framebuffers for a context.

Use get_buffer_manager() to obtain the instance of this class for the current context.

get_aux_buffer()

Get a free auxiliary buffer.

If not aux buffers are available, ImageException is raised. Buffers are released when they are garbage collected.

Return type:ColorBufferImage
get_buffer_mask()

Get a free bitmask buffer.

A bitmask buffer is a buffer referencing a single bit in the stencil buffer. If no bits are free, ImageException is raised. Bits are released when the bitmask buffer is garbage collected.

Return type:BufferImageMask
get_color_buffer()

Get the color buffer.

Return type:ColorBufferImage
get_depth_buffer()

Get the depth buffer.

Return type:DepthBufferImage
get_viewport()

Get the current OpenGL viewport dimensions.

Return type:4-tuple of float.
Returns:Left, top, right and bottom dimensions.
class ImageGrid(image, rows, columns, item_width=None, item_height=None, row_padding=0, column_padding=0)

Bases: pyglet.image.AbstractImage, pyglet.image.AbstractImageSequence

An imaginary grid placed over an image allowing easy access to regular regions of that image.

The grid can be accessed either as a complete image, or as a sequence of images. The most useful applications are to access the grid as a TextureGrid:

image_grid = ImageGrid(...)
texture_grid = image_grid.get_texture_sequence()

or as a Texture3D:

image_grid = ImageGrid(...)
texture_3d = Texture3D.create_for_image_grid(image_grid)
get_image_data()
get_texture(rectangle=False, force_rectangle=False)
get_texture_sequence()

Functions

color_as_bytes(color)
create(width, height, pattern=None)

Create an image optionally filled with the given pattern.

Note:

You can make no assumptions about the return type; usually it will be ImageData or CompressedImageData, but patterns are free to return any subclass of AbstractImage.

Parameters:
  • width (int) – Width of image to create
  • height (int) – Height of image to create
  • pattern (ImagePattern or None) – Pattern to fill image with. If unspecified, the image will initially be transparent.
Return type:

AbstractImage

get_buffer_manager()

Get the buffer manager for the current OpenGL context.

Return type:BufferManager
load(filename, file=None, decoder=None)

Load an image from a file.

Note:

You can make no assumptions about the return type; usually it will be ImageData or CompressedImageData, but decoders are free to return any subclass of AbstractImage.

Parameters:
  • filename (str) – Used to guess the image format, and to load the file if file is unspecified.
  • file (file-like object or None) – Source of image data in any supported format.
  • decoder (ImageDecoder or None) – If unspecified, all decoders that are registered for the filename extension are tried. If none succeed, the exception from the first decoder is raised.
Return type:

AbstractImage

load_animation(filename, file=None, decoder=None)

Load an animation from a file.

Currently, the only supported format is GIF.

Parameters:
  • filename (str) – Used to guess the animation format, and to load the file if file is unspecified.
  • file (file-like object or None) – File object containing the animation stream.
  • decoder (ImageDecoder or None) – If unspecified, all decoders that are registered for the filename extension are tried. If none succeed, the exception from the first decoder is raised.
Return type:

Animation

Exceptions

class ImageException
class ImageEncodeException
class ImageDecodeException